Born in Lativa in April 23, 1915? 1920?. Ethnomusicologist. Came to the US in 1947 after losing her husband, parents and brother in the Holocaust. Earned a doctorate from HUC and master from Columbia University.Taught for two years at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Taught at Jewish Theological Seminary, starting in 1954 and continued there for over thirty years. Founded Department of Ethnomusicology in 1962 which specialized in the music of the Jews of Yemen, India and the Middle East. Collected an archive of thousands of recordings of Jews from very varied backgrounds. She produced numerous article and documentary films on the musics from these Jewish communities.